Object structure

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Alternative title:

European law towards stereotyping and hate speech

Subject and Keywords:

stereotyping   hate speech   European law   human rights   protection of human dignity   discrimination   anti-discrimination legislation   homophobia   freedom of speech   stereotype   sexual minorities


This article takes up considerations of an interdisciplinary nature, from the field of legal and social sciences. After the Second World War the development of human rights institutions, international law has been distinguished in a global system of human rights protection (universal) and regional systems. In Europe, the regional system of human rights protection is the European law, created by the Council of Europe and EU bodies. The term “European law”, constituting the core of the author’s research, refers to the legal system of the Council of Europe and the EU, supported by the ECtHR and the CJEU. Within the ongoing social changes, it is European law that faces the greatest challenges to the protection of individual dignity, unknown in its present form in the 20th century. This article focuses on characterization of social phenomena such as stereotyping and hate speech which, despite their poor recognition in European law, are widely analyzed and studied in social sciences. A broad characterization of these phenomena is aimed at showing the correlations that occur between them, as they do not have adequate legal definitions in European law, and the current regulations in the field of antidiscrimination and freedom of speech. This article will present the characteristics of the phenomenon of stereotyping and the challenges facing the European judiciary in deciding about the harmfulness of stereotypes. Subsequently, the characteristics of hate speech will be presented together with an analysis of present European legal regulations covering this phenomenon. The presented overview leads to a description of the correlation of the phenomenon of stereotyping and hate speech with freedom of speech and the possibility of its restriction in cases provided by law to prevent discriminatory behavior towards discriminated groups. The analysis will also indicate the hierarchy of protection of natural features which, due to archaic regulations of the European anti-discrimination laws, does not fully include the protection of sexual minorities, which remain today the main addressees of stereotyping and hate speech.

Place of publishing:



E-Wydawnictwo. Prawnicza i Ekonomiczna Biblioteka Cyfrowa. Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Date issued:


Resource Type:


Detailed Type:



doi:10.34616/144225   ISSN 2450-3932



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WUL Catalog:

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Is referenced by:



Folia Iuridica Wratislaviensis

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Rights holder:

Copyright by Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Location of original object:

Library of the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics

Autor opisu:

WR U/PAdal