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Interactions of polyamines and phytohormones in plant response to abiotic stress

Subject and Keywords:

polyamines   plant hormones   abiotic stresses


Numerous environmental conditions negatively affect plant production. Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, temperature and heavy metal, cause damages at physiological, biochemical and molecular level and, in consequence, limit plant growth, development and survival. Small amine compounds, polyamines (PAs), play an important role in plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Pharmacological and molecular studies, as well as research using genetic and transgenic approaches, have revealed favourable influence of PAs on growth parameters, ion homeostasis, water maintenance, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and antioxidant system in many plant species under abiotic stresses. PAs display a multitrack action regulating expression of various stress response genes and activity of ion channels, function as ROS scavengers, improve stability of membranes, DNA and other biomolecules, as well as interact with signalling molecules and plant hormones. Athough, it has been known that PAs can interact with plant hormones, especially in recent years the number of reports indicating the cross-talk between PAs and phytohormones in plant response to abiotic stresses has increased. Interestingly, some plant hormones, previously known as regulators of plant growth and development, can also participate in plant response to abiotic stresses. Therefore, we summarize the most significant achievements represent interaction between PAs and some plant hormones, such as abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, ethylene, jasmonates, cytokinins and gibberellins in plants under abiotic stresses and consider future perspectives for research focusing on cross-talk between PAs and plant hormones =