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Alternative title:

Breaking the glass ceiling by a woman leader in health care

Subject and Keywords:

glass ceiling   stereotypes   women-leaders   leadership   health sector


The purpose of the work is to explain exactly what a glass ceiling is, what is the scale of the matter in the healthcare sector in the world and in Poland, both at medical universities and medical institutions, and what can be done to counteract or mitigate this aspect. The research method was a review and analysis of literature, including articles in international magazines and reports of well-known institutions, such as the Central Statistical Office in Poland, Deloitte.The term "glass ceiling" is a metaphor for invisible barriers preventing women from being promoted to high positions in the company's organizational structure. The problem of the existence of social, cultural, governmental, internal and external or psychological barriers is increasingly being analyzed, which is illustrated by many literature reports in this area. Conclusions from the analyzes carried out: 1) in the health sector only 11% of women in managerial positions achieved the positions of CEO, compared to 25% of men; 2) in 2011, women constituted 47% of students attending university, 36% of all medical lecturers and 19.5% of full professors; 3) only 11% of clinical wards were run by women; 4) the pay gap in Poland in 2014 for women's and men's remuneration in the health care and social assistance sector was 17,4%, and for health professionals ‒ 34%; 5) women lack a mentor-guide. Counteracting the matter: 1) monitoring of potential cases of discrimination and training of personnel in this aspect; 2) avoiding stereotypically male promotion criteria, grants and awards; 3) promoting leadership among doctors and women scientists; 4) introducing flexibility in the workplace (mobile working hours, the possibility of part-time work) and institutional support in the care of children and close relatives (crèches, kindergartens, nursing homes, etc.)

Place of publishing:



E-Wydawnictwo. Prawnicza i Ekonomiczna Biblioteka Cyfrowa. Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Date issued:


Detailed Type:



ISBN 978-83-66066-83-0 (druk)   ISBN 978-83-66066-84-7 (online)






(Prace Naukowe Wydziału Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego)   (E-Monografie ; nr 153)

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Copyright by Wydział Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego

Autor opisu:

WR U/PAdjm